Gujarat is a state in the western part of India known locally as Jewel of the Western part of India. It has an area of 196,204 km2 with a coastline of 1,600 km, most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the north, Maharashtra to the south, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and the Arabian Sea as well as the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west.
Gujarat is one of the most diverse states in India. Gujarat derives its name from the word ‘Gujaratta’. Gujaratta means the land of gurjars. The gurjars were a sub-tribe of the Huns who ruled the area.
Kutch is situated on the northwestern border of the state bordering Pakistan with a maximum altitude of 300 meters and almost desert-like topography. The ridge of Jurassic sandstone in the central part of the region breaks into the landscape at several places. In the north is Rann of Kutch, a salt marsh and in the south is Little Rann of Kutch.
The State took it’s name from the Gujjars, who ruled the area during the 700’s and 800’s. Stone Age settlements around Sabarmati and Mahi rivers indicate the same time as that of the Indus Valley Civilization while Harappan centres are also found at Lothal, Rampur, Amri and other places.
The total area of Gujarat is roughly around 196,024km2 and the total population of the state stands out to be 60,383,628, as per the census of 2011. Being the birthplace of many Indian legends like Mahatma Gandhi and Vallabhbhai Patel, this place has a rich heritage of culture and traditions which glorifies the state.
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Geographically, the state of Gujarat is divided into three areas. The mainland region includes the major cities of Ahmedabad, Surat and Vadodara (Baroda). The Gulf of Mumbai divides the mainland from the flat and barren plains of the Kathiawar Peninsula also known as Saurashtra. Before independence, the Saurashtra region was ruled by about 200 rulers who continued to rule it as they had made peace with the British.